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Nolan Richardson
Nolan Richardson

Flexible AC Transmission Systems FACTS by Yong-Hua Song and Allan T Johns: Discover the Latest Trends and Developments in FACTS Technology


- What are the main components and types of FACTS devices? - What are the benefits and challenges of FACTS technology? H2: High voltage dc transmission technology - How does high voltage dc transmission work and what are its advantages? - What are the main applications and examples of high voltage dc transmission? - How does FACTS technology enhance high voltage dc transmission? H2: Static VAR compensators (SVC) and static synchronous compensators (STATCOM) - What are SVC and STATCOM and how do they work? - What are the differences and similarities between SVC and STATCOM? - What are the applications and examples of SVC and STATCOM? H2: Series compensation - What is series compensation and how does it work? - What are the types and modes of series compensation? - What are the applications and examples of series compensation? H2: Phase shifters - What are phase shifters and how do they work? - What are the types and modes of phase shifters? - What are the applications and examples of phase shifters? H2: Unified power flow controller (UPFC) - What is UPFC and how does it work? - What are the components and functions of UPFC? - What are the applications and examples of UPFC? H2: Electromagnetic transient simulation studies - What are electromagnetic transient simulation studies and why are they important? - What are the methods and tools for electromagnetic transient simulation studies? - What are the challenges and solutions for electromagnetic transient simulation studies? H2: Steady-state analysis and control - What is steady-state analysis and control and why is it important? - What are the methods and tools for steady-state analysis and control? - What are the challenges and solutions for steady-state analysis and control? H2: Transient stability control - What is transient stability control and why is it important? - What are the methods and tools for transient stability control? - What are the challenges and solutions for transient stability control? H2: Protection for EHV transmission lines with FACTS devices - What is protection for EHV transmission lines with FACTS devices and why is it important? - What are the methods and tools for protection for EHV transmission lines with FACTS devices? - What are the challenges and solutions for protection for EHV transmission lines with FACTS devices? H2: FACTS development and applications - What is FACTS development and applications and why is it important? - What are the current trends and future prospects of FACTS development and applications? - What are the case studies and best practices of FACTS development and applications? H2: Application of power electronics to the distribution system - What is application of power electronics to the distribution system and why is it important? - What are the types and functions of power electronics devices in the distribution system? - What are the benefits and challenges of application of power electronics to the distribution system? H1: Conclusion - Summarize the main points of the article. - Provide some recommendations or suggestions for further research or action. H1: FAQs - Provide five unique FAQs related to the topic of the article. Table 2: Article with HTML formatting Introduction


Flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) are power electronic devices that can control various parameters of ac power systems, such as voltage, current, impedance, phase angle, frequency, etc. They can improve the performance, stability, reliability, security, efficiency, flexibility, controllability, quality, economy, etc. of ac power systems. FACTS devices can be classified into four categories according to their connection mode: shunt, series, combined shunt-series, and combined series-series. Some of the most common FACTS devices are static VAR compensators (SVC), static synchronous compensators (STATCOM), series capacitors, series reactors, phase shifters, unified power flow controllers (UPFC), etc. FACTS technology has many benefits, such as increasing the power transfer capability, enhancing the voltage stability, mitigating the power oscillations, reducing the transmission losses, damping the system disturbances, improving the power quality, etc. However, FACTS technology also faces some challenges, such as high cost, complexity, maintenance, coordination, protection, harmonics, etc. Therefore, it is important to study and apply FACTS technology in a systematic and optimal way to achieve the best results.




Flexible ac transmission systems FACTS By Yong-Hua Song Allan T Johns-hotfile.rar



High voltage dc transmission technology


High voltage dc (HVDC) transmission is a technology that uses direct current (dc) to transmit large amounts of power over long distances with low losses and high efficiency. HVDC transmission has some advantages over ac transmission, such as lower investment cost, lower line losses, lower environmental impact, asynchronous interconnection, controllability of power flow, etc. HVDC transmission has some main applications and examples, such as bulk power transmission over long distances or undersea cables, interconnection of different ac systems or renewable energy sources, back-to-back coupling of ac systems with different frequencies or characteristics, etc. FACTS technology can enhance HVDC transmission by providing fast and flexible control of ac system parameters, such as voltage and reactive power, which can improve the stability and reliability of HVDC transmission. Some examples of FACTS devices that can be used in HVDC transmission are SVC, STATCOM, UPFC, etc.


Static VAR compensators (SVC) and static synchronous compensators (STATCOM)


SVC and STATCOM are shunt-connected FACTS devices that can provide fast and flexible control of voltage and reactive power in ac systems. SVC is a conventional device that uses thyristor-controlled reactors (TCR) and thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC) to generate or absorb reactive power by varying the impedance of the shunt branch. STATCOM is a modern device that uses a voltage source converter (VSC) to generate or absorb reactive power by injecting a controllable ac voltage in series with a coupling transformer. SVC and STATCOM have some differences and similarities in their operation and performance. Some of the differences are: STATCOM has a faster response time than SVC; STATCOM can provide more reactive power than SVC at low system voltages; STATCOM can generate or absorb both active and reactive power by using energy storage devices; STATCOM has lower losses and harmonics than SVC; STATCOM has higher cost and complexity than SVC. Some of the similarities are: both SVC and STATCOM can improve the voltage stability and power quality; both SVC and STATCOM can reduce the transmission losses and increase the power transfer capability; both SVC and STATCOM can damp the power oscillations and system disturbances; both SVC and STATCOM can be coordinated with other control devices for optimal performance. SVC and STATCOM have some applications and examples in various fields, such as industrial loads, wind farms, solar plants, railway systems, etc.


Series compensation


Series compensation is a series-connected FACTS device that can provide fast and flexible control of impedance and power flow in ac systems. Series compensation can be achieved by using capacitors or reactors to reduce or increase the effective line impedance respectively. Series compensation can be classified into two types: fixed series compensation (FSC) and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC). FSC is a simple device that uses fixed capacitors to provide a constant degree of series compensation. TCSC is an advanced device that uses thyristor-controlled reactors (TCR) to provide a variable degree of series compensation. Series compensation can operate in two modes: capacitive mode and inductive mode. In capacitive mode, series compensation reduces the line impedance and increases the power transfer capability. In inductive mode, series compensation increases the line impedance and reduces the power transfer capability. Series compensation has some applications and examples in various fields, such as long-distance transmission lines, parallel transmission lines, looped transmission systems, etc.


Phase shifters


Phase shifters


Phase shifters are series-connected FACTS devices that can provide fast and flexible control of phase angle and power flow in ac systems. Phase shifters can be achieved by using transformers or converters to inject a controllable voltage with a variable phase angle in series with the line. Phase shifters can be classified into two types: analog and digital. Analog phase shifters provide a continuously variable phase shift or time delay. Digital phase shifters provide a discrete set of phase shifts or time delays. Phase shifters can also be classified into three types according to their transmission mode: differential, single-ended or waveguide. Differential phase shifters use balanced transmission lines or differential amplifiers to produce a phase shift between two output signals. Single-ended phase shifters use unbalanced transmission lines or single-ended amplifiers to produce a phase shift between one output signal and a reference signal. Waveguide phase shifters use waveguide structures or components to produce a phase shift between one output signal and a reference signal. Phase shifters have some applications and examples in various fields, such as phased array antennas, radar systems, communication systems, etc.


Unified power flow controller (UPFC)


UPFC is a combined shunt-series FACTS device that can provide fast and flexible control of voltage, impedance, and phase angle in ac systems. UPFC is composed of two voltage source converters (VSC) connected by a common dc link. One VSC acts as a shunt device that can generate or absorb reactive power and regulate the dc link voltage. The other VSC acts as a series device that can inject a controllable voltage with variable magnitude and phase angle in series with the line. UPFC can perform three functions: voltage regulation, series compensation, and phase shifting. UPFC can also perform other functions, such as power oscillation damping, transient stability enhancement, power quality improvement, etc. UPFC has some applications and examples in various fields, such as long-distance transmission lines, parallel transmission lines, looped transmission systems, etc.


Electromagnetic transient simulation studies


Electromagnetic transient simulation studies are studies that analyze the behavior of ac power systems under various transient conditions, such as faults, switching operations, lightning strikes, etc. Electromagnetic transient simulation studies are important for designing, testing, and optimizing FACTS devices and their control strategies. Electromagnetic transient simulation studies can be performed by using various methods and tools, such as numerical methods, analytical methods, software tools, hardware tools, etc. Some of the challenges and solutions for electromagnetic transient simulation studies are: modeling accuracy and complexity, computational speed and efficiency, data availability and validation, coordination and integration of different tools and platforms, etc. Steady-state analysis and control


Steady-state analysis and control is a study that analyzes the performance of ac power systems under normal operating conditions, such as load variations, generation changes, line switching, etc. Steady-state analysis and control is important for designing, planning, and operating power systems in a secure and economic way. Steady-state analysis and control can be performed by using various methods and tools, such as power flow analysis, optimal power flow, security analysis, contingency analysis, voltage stability analysis, reactive power control, etc. Some of the challenges and solutions for steady-state analysis and control are: modeling accuracy and complexity, computational speed and efficiency, data availability and validation, coordination and integration of different methods and tools, etc. FACTS devices can improve the steady-state performance of power systems by providing fast and flexible control of system parameters, such as voltage, impedance, phase angle, etc. FACTS devices can also be coordinated with other control devices, such as generators, transformers, capacitors, etc., for optimal performance.


Transient stability control


Transient stability control is a study that analyzes the behavior of ac power systems under severe disturbances, such as faults, loss of generation, loss of load, etc. Transient stability control is important for maintaining the synchronism of generators and preventing cascading failures and blackouts. Transient stability control can be performed by using various methods and tools, such as transient stability analysis, time-domain simulation, direct methods, artificial intelligence techniques, etc. Some of the challenges and solutions for transient stability control are: modeling accuracy and complexity, computational speed and efficiency, data availability and validation, coordination and integration of different methods and tools, etc. FACTS devices can improve the transient stability of power systems by providing fast and flexible control of system parameters, such as voltage, impedance, phase angle, etc. FACTS devices can also provide damping of power oscillations and system disturbances by using appropriate control strategies. Transient energy function method


Transient energy function method is a direct method of power system transient stability analysis. It is based on the concept of transient energy, which is the difference between the kinetic energy and the potential energy of the system. Transient energy function method can determine the stability of the system by comparing the transient energy with a critical energy, which is the minimum energy required for separation of generators. Transient energy function method can also determine the critical clearing time, which is the maximum time allowed for clearing a fault without losing stability. Transient energy function method can be performed by using various steps, such as constructing the transient energy function, finding the unstable equilibrium point, finding the critical energy surface, finding the impasse surface, finding the stability boundary surface, finding the critical clearing time, etc. Some of the challenges and solutions for transient energy function method are: modeling accuracy and complexity, computational speed and efficiency, data availability and validation, coordination and integration of different methods and tools, etc.


Artificial intelligent techniques


Artificial intelligent techniques are techniques that use artificial intelligence (AI) to perform various tasks, such as learning, reasoning, decision making, problem solving, etc. Artificial intelligent techniques can be applied to power system analysis and control in various ways, such as data mining, pattern recognition, classification, clustering, optimization, prediction, etc. Artificial intelligent techniques can use various methods and tools, such as artificial neural networks (ANN), fuzzy logic (FL), genetic algorithms (GA), expert systems (ES), etc. Some of the benefits and challenges of artificial intelligent techniques are: high accuracy and adaptability, low cost and complexity, high speed and efficiency, data availability and validation, coordination and integration of different methods and tools, etc. Artificial intelligent techniques can improve the performance of power systems by providing fast and flexible analysis and control of system parameters, such as voltage, impedance, phase angle, etc. Artificial intelligent techniques can also provide intelligent solutions for complex and uncertain problems that are difficult to solve by conventional methods. Power system stabilizers


Power system stabilizers (PSS) are control devices that can provide damping torque to the generators and improve the small-signal stability of power systems. PSS are usually added as a supplementary input signal to the voltage regulator (AVR) of the generators. PSS can use various input signals, such as rotor speed, electric power, frequency, voltage, etc., to modulate the excitation voltage and produce a synchronizing and damping torque. PSS can be designed and tuned by using various methods and tools, such as phase compensation method, root-locus method, frequency response method, eigenvalue analysis method, etc. Some of the benefits and challenges of PSS are: high accuracy and adaptability, low cost and complexity, high speed and efficiency, data availability and validation, coordination and integration of different methods and tools, etc. PSS can improve the performance of power systems by providing fast and flexible damping of power oscillations and system disturbances. PSS can also be coordinated with other control devices, such as FACTS devices, for optimal performance.


Series compensation


Series compensation is a series-connected FACTS device that can provide fast and flexible control of impedance and power flow in ac systems. Series compensation can be achieved by using capacitors or reactors to reduce or increase the effective line impedance respectively. Series compensation can be classified into two types: fixed series compensation (FSC) and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC). FSC is a simple device that uses fixed capacitors to provide a constant degree of series compensation. TCSC is an advanced device that uses thyristor-controlled reactors (TCR) to provide a variable degree of series compensation. Series compensation can operate in two modes: capacitive mode and inductive mode. In capacitive mode, series compensation reduces the line impedance and increases the power transfer capability. In inductive mode, series compensation increases the line impedance and reduces the power transfer capability. Series compensation has some applications and examples in various fields, such as long-distance transmission lines, parallel transmission lines, looped transmission systems, etc. Shunt compensation


Shunt compensation is a shunt-connected FACTS device that can provide fast and flexible control of voltage and reactive power in ac systems. Shunt compensation can be achieved by using capacitors or reactors to generate or absorb reactive power respectively. Shunt compensation can be classified into two types: fixed shunt compensation (FSC) and thyristor-controlled shunt compensation (TCSC). FSC is a simple device that uses fixed capacitors or reactors to provide a constant degree of shunt compensation. TCSC is an advanced device that uses thyristor-controlled capacitors or reactors to provide a variable degree of shunt compensation. Shunt compensation can operate in two modes: capacitive mode and inductive mode. In capacitive mode, shunt compensation generates reactive power and increases the voltage magnitude. In inductive mode, shunt compensation a


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